The Constitutional Offices
- Governor (1849-Present): Gavin Newsom
The Governor is the highest elected office in California, the head of the executive branch of the state government, and the Commander of the National Guard. The Governor has the power to approve or veto legislation, appoint state judges, and fill vacancies in statewide elected offices. The Governor also has the power to grant pardons, reprieves, and to commute judicial punishments. Since 1990, Proposition 140 limits Governors to two four-year terms, although Jerry Brown, who served two terms in 1975-1982, was elected to two additional terms in 2010 and 2014, becoming the longest-serving Governor in October 2013.
Total Governors of California since 1849: 40
* Does not count the those Lieutenant Governors or other officers who served as Acting Governor for short durations as provided for by Article V, Section 10 of the California State Constitution.
- Lieutenant Governor (1849-Present): Eleni Kounalakis
The three most important functions of the Lieutenant Governor is to act in the role of Governor if the Governor is incapacitated or travels out of state (which happens several times each year), to cast a deciding vote in the event of a tie in the State Senate (Gray Davis cast the most recent casting vote in 1996), and to assume the office of the Governor if it becomes vacant (Goodwin Knight was the last to assume the vacant Governor's office in 1953). Although many would assume that this office is a stepping-stone to the Governor's office, only three (Newsom, Davis, and Knight) of the thirteen Lieutenant Governors since 1950 have become Governor. Also, only one Lieutenant Governor has held the office for more than eight years; Leo McCarthy.
Total Lieutenant Governors of California since 1849: 44
* The Senate President pro Tem serves as Acting Lieutenant Governor whenever the Lieutenant Governor is out of state, incapacitated, or unable to fulfill the duties of the office.
The statewide offices, other than Governor and Lieutenant Governor, were created by the state legislature in 1850. The Statutes of 1850 included; Chapter 2 (creating the State Printer), Chapter 4 (creating the State Controller), Chapter 5 (creating the State Treasurer), Chapter 6 (creating the Secretary of State), Chapter 11 (creating the Attorney General), and Chapter 14 (which created the State Supreme Court).
- Secretary of State (1850-Present): Shirley Weber
The Secretary of State is responsible for the administration of elections in California, as well as the California State Archives. A large part of the Secretary of State's duties involves chartering corporations and notaries public.
Total California Secretaries of State since 1850: 31
- Controller (1850-Present): Malia Cohen
Named "Comptroller" until 1862, the office of the Controller is responsible for spending the state's money. The Controller has the authority to investigate and audit all money spent by the state, and is a member of the State Board of Equalization. Currently, the Controller's office has been held by a Democrat since the 1974 General Election. Only one office has been held by Democrats for a longer period, the US Senate seat currently held by Barbara Boxer, which has been Democratic since 1968. Ray L. Riley was elected Controller four times, while Edward P. Colgan won the office five times.
Total California Controllers since 1850: 32
- Treasurer (1850-Present): Fiona Ma
The Treasurer is the "state’s banker". The office, responsible for investing unused state money and paying "state funds when spent by the Controller" has a relatively restricted authority. The first woman to hold statewide office was Ivy Baker Priest, who was elected Treasurer in 1966. The office was held the longest by Charles G. Johnson, who was elected eight times.
Total California Treasurers since 1850: 33
- Attorney General (1850-Present): Rob Bonta
The Attorney General is the "chief law officer of the State" and leads the California Department of Justice. The Attorney General is responsible for ensuring that the laws of the state are "uniformly and adequately enforced" and also represents the people of California in civil and criminal matters. The longest serving Attorney General was U. S. Webb, who was elected nine times.
Total California Attorney Generals since 1850: 35
- Insurance Commissioner (1988-Present): Ricardo Lara
The Insurance Commissioner is both the lowest partisan office in California as well as the newest. First created in 1868, the office first became an elected position in 1988. The Commissioner answers public questions and complaints regarding the insurance industry as well as licensing a nd regulating insurance companies.
Total California Insurance Commissioners since 1988: 6
- Superintendent of Public Instruction (1851-Present): Tony Thurmond
Currently, the only non-partisan statewide office. Created as a partisan office in 1851, the office first became nonpartisan in the election of 1914. The Superintendent is "in charge of the California Department of Education, the chief spokesperson for public schools, and provides education policy and direction to local school districts."
Total California Superintendents of Public Instruction since 1851: 27
- State Board of Equalization (1879-Present): Ted Gaines, Sally Lieber, Tony Vazquez, and Mike Shaefer
An unfamiliar constitutional office to most Californians, the Board is frequently confused with the Franchise Tax Board. The BOE is the only publicly elected tax commission in the United States. Created in 1870, the Board of Equalization originally consisted of the State Controller and two members appointed by the Governor. After being declared unconstitutional and disbanded, it was resurrected when the California Constitution was rewritten in 1879. The number of seats on the board increased to four; one for each congressional district the state had at that time. In 2017, the legislature stripped the Board of most of its duties, reassigning most BOE staff to the new California Department of Tax and Fee Administration. An entirely new board was elected in 2018, the first time that there was a full turnover of the board since the 1880s. Legislation to eliminate the Board of Equalization were introduced in 2018 and 2023 (ACA 11).
California's Board of Equalization Members [District 1] [District 2] [District 3] [District 4]
Total Members of the State Board of Equalization since 1879: 75
Former Elected Offices
- Clerk of the Supreme Court (1850-1911)
The Clerk of the Supreme Court was established as a partisan elected office on February 14, 1850, and the first election was held late in the same year. The office became an appointed position after voters approved Proposition 20 in 1911. In 1966, Proposition 1A (which also created a full-time Legislature) gave the Supreme Court the ability to appoint and remove the Clerk. "The clerk oversees the administration and management of the court, including supervising and directing the clerk’s office and the calendar coordination office; recruiting counsel in capital appeals and other cases; preparing the court’s calendar; docketing the court’s cases; maintaining the court’s public records; and advising litigants, counsel, and the public of the status of matters before the court." The office exists today, and (since September 2016) the current Clerk/Administrator of the Supreme Court is Jorge E. Navarrete.
- Surveyor General (1850-1929)
The office was created in 1850, with the Surveyor General also acting as the Register of the State Lands Office. The Surveyor General was responsible for licensing surveyors, regulating mines, and surveying the Mexican land grants. The office was dissolved in 1929, with the state powers of the Surveyor General and the Bureau of State Lands were incorporated into the Department of Finance under the Office of the Governor, and the records being transferred to a Supervisor of Surveys under the US Department of Interior. In 1938, the powers were moved to the State Lands Commission, whose three members are the Lieutenant Governor, Controller, and Director of Finance.
- State Printer (1855-1911)
The office of State Printer was created by second statute passed by the state legislature. The office was abolished in 1852, but brought back in 1854. The office was originally to be elected by the legislature, but became a statewide elected office in 1855. The office became an appointed office and was renamed "Superintendent of State Printing" in 1872, although it regained status as a statewide elected office in 1891. Finally, the office became an appointed position after the election of 1910. The state continues to operate an Office of State Publishing within the Department of General Services. Currently the "OSP prints the Governor's budget, all Legislative bills, more than twelve million (12,000,000) ballot pamphlets, a total of fourteen million (14,000,000) tax forms, approximately five million (5,000,000) DMV handbooks, as well as thousands of other projects for state agencies" including the printing of all bills for the Legislature. As of September 2022, the current State Printer is Brent Jamison.
- Railroad Commission (1879-1911)
The Constitution of 1879 created a three-district Railroad Commission to regulate the price of railroad transportation. Following the passage of Proposition 16 (1911) by 64% and the Public Utilities Act of 1911, the Commission was changed to a five-member body appointed by the Governor, which had supervision over a wide range of public utilities. The body was renamed the California Public Utilities Commission in 1946. The Public Utilities Commission is still a five-member board today, appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the Legislature.
California's Railroad Commissioners [District 1] [District 2] [District 3]
Total Members of the Railroad Commission: 25
External Link: Public Utilities Commissioners since 1911
California State Senate (1849-Present)
In California's bicameral state legislature, as in Congress, the Senate is the higher house. The first State Senate (as called for in the Constitution of 1849) was a sixteen-member body elected to a two-year term, with half of the Senators elected at each election. By 1852, when the legislature first met in Vallejo, the number of members had grown to 28. In 1854, the number grew to 34, and 35 in 1858. In 1862, the number had reached 40, where it has remained since. Senators often shared districts until 1886, when the number of Senate Districts increased from 29 to 40.
Fun Facts (last updated 12/5/2022)
Total Senators Since 1849: 1,199*
Newest Senator: The newest Senators are the 9 Senators who were elected in the 2022 General Election (Alvarado-Gil, Ashby, Blakespear, Menjivar, Niello, Padilla, Seyarto, Smallwood-Cuevas, and Wahab).
Senior Senator: The Dean of the Senate is Richard Roth, who was first elected in 2012.
California State Assembly (1849-Present)
The State Assembly is the lower house of the state legislature. During its first session in 1849, the annually-elected State Assembly had 36 members. The number of members grew to 63 in 1852, and finally to 80 in 1854. The Speaker of the Assembly, elected by members of the majority party, is often described as the second most powerful person in state politics (after the Governor). The three longest serving Speakers of the Assembly were Willie Brown (1980-1995), Anthony Rendon (2016-2023), and Jesse Unruh (1961-1969).
Fun Facts (as of 12/5/2022)
Total Assemblymembers Since 1849: 3,815
Newest Assemblymember: The newest Assemblymember is Greg Wallis, who was elected at the 2022 General Election, but was sworn into office one week later than the other members of the Class of 2022 due to his election being extraordinarily close and unresolved at the start of the session. The other 23 new legislators who were first elected in the 2022 General Election and sworn into office at the start of the session are Addis, Alanis, Bains, Juan Carrillo, Connolly, Dixon, Essayli, Hart, Hoover, Jackson, Lowenthal, Stephanie Nguyen, Ortega, Blanca Pacheco, Papan, Joe Patterson, Pellerin, Sanchez, Schiavo, Soria, Ta, Valencia, and Zbur.
Senior Assemblymember: The current longest-serving Assemblymembers are the 7 continuously-serving members of the Class of 2012 (Holden, Jones-Sawyer Jr., Maienschein, Jim Patterson, Rendon, Ting, and Waldron).
United States President: Joe Biden
The President of the United States is the head of the executive branch of the United States government, the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, and the Head of State. Please note; election results on JoinCalifornia.com reflect only California vote totals. For example, although Richard Nixon won the 1960 Presidential election in California, he failed to secure enough electoral votes to be elected President in that election.
Fun Facts (as of 1/21/2021)
Total US Presidents Since 1789: 46
United States Senate
US Senator (Class 1): [Vacant; awaiting appointment]
US Senator (Class 3): Alex Padilla
U.S. Senators were elected by the State Legislature from 1849 until 1914, when the 17th Amendment changed the office to a direct election by the voters.
Fun Facts (as of 1/21/2021)
Total US Senators from California Since 1849: 45
Newest US Senators: [Vacant; awaiting appointment]
Senior Senator: Alex Padilla who was elected in January 2021.
United States House of Representatives
With 53 Members of the House of Representatives, California has not only the largest current Congressional Delegation, but also the largest in the history of the United States. In California's first elections, the members were selected "At Large", with each of the three representing the entire state. Because the U.S. Congress maintains detailed biographical information on current and former members, it is much easier to track the statistics listed below.
Fun Facts (as of 6/8/2022)
Total US Representatives from California Since 1849: 382
Junior Members of Congress: The newest Representatives are the Class of 2023 (elected in November 2022), which includes John Duarte, Robert Garcia, Sydney Kamlager, Kevin Kiley, and Kevin Mullin.